Several portions of the Midwest received more than double the normal average precipitation amount during the
month of May this year. This has resulted in delays in the completion of corn and soybean planting in some areas
and has resulted in drown-out damage to previously planted crops in other areas. It has taken considerable time
for fields in the wettest areas to dry out to resume Spring planting, due to drainage systems reaching capacity and
soils being totally saturated. The above normal rainfall in May has basically eliminated the drought concerns that
existed early this Spring in most areas of the Upper Midwest.

The University of Minnesota Research and Outreach Center at Waseca measured nearly 7.5 inches of precipitation
during the month of May, which is about three inches above normal. This makes May of 2024 the third wettest
on record in the past 110 years at the Waseca location. Precipitation was measured on 18 days during May at the
Waseca Research Center; however, the greatest daily recorded rainfall amount was 1.49 inches, which helped
limit ponding and standing water in fields. Some areas of the Midwest have measured even higher precipitation
amounts during the month of May this year and have had larger rainfall totals from individual thunderstorms.

Research has shown that corn planted during the last half of May has a good chance of producing 90 percent or
more of optimum yield potential, assuming that there are favorable growing conditions following planting.
Beyond that period the decline in corn yield potential gets a bit steeper. There can also be significant loss of
soybean yield potential once planting dates extend beyond late May. Farmers facing June planting dates are likely
to look at planting earlier maturing corn hybrids and soybean varieties; however, these hybrids and varieties
usually have less yield potential than the full-season seed choices. Farm operators should consult their
agronomists for the best corn hybrid and soybean variety options with later planting dates.

Some farmers may need to consider prevented planting or replant options
Since we have passed June 1, producers in the affected areas will be evaluating their crop insurance coverage for
late planting or prevented planting options, as compared to the yield and profit potential for late planted corn and
soybeans. The “final planting date” for corn is May 31 in the southern two-thirds of Minnesota, all of Iowa, and
in most of Wisconsin, as well as a few counties in both Southeast South Dakota and North Dakota, in order to
receive full crop insurance coverage for 2024. The “late planting period” for corn is 25 days, which would be
from June 1-25, with a reduction in the insurance coverage level of one percent for each day that corn planting is
delayed past May 31. Following the late planting period, the maximum crop insurance coverage is the same as
the insurance compensation for “prevented plant” crop acres.

For soybeans, the “final planting date” is June 10 in Minnesota, eastern North and South Dakota, and the northern
two-thirds of Wisconsin, with the late planting period extending 25 days until July 5. The final soybean planting
date is June 15 in Iowa and the southern one-third of Wisconsin, with the late planting period lasting until July
10. As with corn, there is a reduction of one percent per day in the maximum insurance coverage during the late
planting period, with maximum insurance coverage the same “prevented plant” coverage after that period.

Once the crop insurance “final planting date” has been reached for corn or soybeans, farm operators can opt to
take the prevented planting insurance coverage, if they have that coverage option, rather than planting the crop.
A large majority of producers in the Upper Midwest carry Revenue Protection (RP) crop insurance with prevented
planting coverage on their corn and soybeans. If producers chose the base prevented planting coverage, they will
receive 55 percent of their original crop insurance guarantee for corn and 60 percent for soybeans on a specific
farm unit. Producers in many areas also had the option to purchase an additional 5 percent prevented planted
coverage for corn and soybeans at the time of crop insurance enrollment.

Assuming that producers have an eligible Revenue Protection (RP) or Yield Protection (YP) crop insurance
policy, they would have the following options with regards to delayed or prevented planting later than the
established final planting dates (listed earlier):

  • Plant the insured crop during the late planting period, which is typically 25 days following the final
    planting date for a given crop, such as planting corn after the May 31 final planting date. The maximum crop
    insurance coverage is reduced by one percent per day for each day after the final planting date that the crop
    is planted. For example, corn planted on June 10 would have 90% of the original insurance guarantee.
  • Plant another crop (second crop) after the “final planting date”. For example, soybeans could be
    planted on intended corn acres after May 31. In that case, there would be no prevented planting coverage
    payment eligibility for the corn acres, and the soybeans would be treated as insurable soybean acres.
  • File a Prevented Planting crop insurance claim on the qualifying original unplanted acres after the
    “final planting date”. (Example — May 31 for corn and June 10 for soybeans.) The producer will receive
    a prevented planting payment per eligible acre equal to the original revenue guarantee times 55 percent
    (.55) for corn and 60 percent (.60) for soybeans. The original revenue guarantee is the APH yield times the
    crop insurance Spring base price ($4.66 per bushel for corn and $11.55 per bushel for soybeans) times the
    insurance coverage level. Following are examples with 85% RP coverage on corn and soybeans:
    Corn Example — 200 Bu./A x $4.66/Bu. x .85 = $792.20 x .55 = $435.71 (Prev. Planting Payment)
    Soybean Example — 60 Bu./A x $11.55/Bu. x .85 = $589.05 x .60 = $353.43 (Prev. Planting Payment)
  • Replant options — Farmers with crop insurance coverage that had corn or soybeans planted may qualify
    for replant coverage if the planted crop was lost to drown-out damage or poor emergence. The maximum
    replant payment is 8 bushels times the Spring price for corn and 3 bushels times the Spring price for
    soybeans. The 2024 maximum replant coverage is $37.28 per acre for corn and $34.65 per acre for soybeans.

To qualify for prevented planting crop insurance coverage and payments, as well as for replant insurance
coverage, affected areas must be equal or greater than 20 acres, or represent 20 percent of the total eligible insured
acreage in a farm unit of less than 100 acres. The maximum acreage eligible for prevented planting coverage is
limited to the number of acres in the insurable farm unit.

Producers need to report prevented planted and replant acres need their crop insurance agent. The insurance agents
can also be a good resource regarding final planting dates, prevented planting options, and replant considerations.
Kent Thiesse, Farm Management Analyst, has prepared an information sheet titled: “Late and Prevented
Planting Options for 2024”, which contains details on prevented planting requirements and considerations. To
receive a copy of the information sheet, please send an e-mail to: kentthiesse@gmail.com.

Following are links to some good information and spreadsheets on late and prevented planting decisions:

  • USDA Risk Management Agency (RMA) — https://www.rma.usda.gov/en/Topics/Prevented-Planting
  • Iowa State University — https://www.extension.iastate.edu/agdm/crops/html/a1-57.html
  • University of Illinois — https://farmdoc.illinois.edu/fast-tools/planting-decision-model

Every producer’s situation is different regarding late and prevented planting options, as a result, the best option
will vary considerably from farm-to-farm, depending on differences in yield potential and insurance coverage.
Farm operators should contact their crop insurance agent, agronomist, and farm management advisor to assist
with making decision. The choice that is made could result in a difference of thousands of dollars in the potential
insurance coverage.
Note — For additional information contact Kent Thiesse, Farm Management Analyst, Green Solutions
Phone — (507) 381-7960; E-mail — kentthiesse@gmail.com